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Jayashree Watal

World Trade Organization

TRIPS (11/12/2017 - 14/12/2017)


Presently a Counsellor in the Intellectual Property Division of the World Trade Organization since 2001. More than twenty two years of experience in government in India, of which ten years experience in policy, diplomacy, economic research and administration on intellectual property rights, which includes having:

  • Negotiated the TRIPS Agreement in GATT/WTO on behalf of the government of India and contributed to policy making in the areas of trade policy, intellectual property, public health, and the environment during and after TRIPS negotiations for over 7 years.
  • Researched and published extensively on economic issues related to intellectual property rights and public health and a book Intellectual Property Rights in the WTO and Developing Countries (Oxford University Press, India and Kluwer Law International, 2001) that has sold over 2000 copies world over.
  • Regularly made presentations in technical assistance programmes to policy makers world over on TRIPS issues, including in WTO dedicated workshops on TRIPS and Public Health.
  • Consulted for the World Bank, UNCTAD and the UNDP in the area of trade, intellectual property and the environment.
  • Participate in international conferences, workshops, seminars and am invited regularly as lecturer for graduate students in the US and India on matters relating to the WTO and IPRs.
  • Helped supervise the administration of the patent and trademarks offices in India for 2 years.




  • University of Paris V, (Rene Descartes), Paris, France: DESS, (post Master's degree), International Trade Law, 1992.
  • International Institute for Public Administration, (IIAP), Paris, France: Diploma in International Economic Relations, 1992.
  • Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, University of Pune, Maharashtra, India: M.A., Economics, 1975
  • Fergusson College, University of Pune, Maharashtra, India: B.A., Economics, 1973.




  • World Trade Organization, Geneva, Counsellor, Intellectual Property Division, from February 2001 to date dealing with public health and biodiversity issues.
  • Georgetown University Law Center, Adjunct Professor: to teach a short course on Trade, Intellectual Property and Public Health, Fall 2009 onwards.
  • John. F. Kennedy School of Government (CID), Harvard University, Visiting Scholar, Fall Semester, 2000.
  • Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington D.C., Oct. 1998-August 2000 Visiting Fellow (as an exchange fellow from ICRIER, New Delhi). Also, visiting scholar at the George Washington University Law School, Washington, D.C., 1997- 2000.
  • Government of India, Ministry of Commerce, Director, Trade Policy Division, New Delhi, 1995-1998.
  • Government of India, Ministry of Industry, Deputy Secretary (Industrial Development) and Under Secretary (Chemicals and Petrochemicals), New Delhi, 1986-1991.


Selected publications

1.      Watal, J. (2010), US-China Intellectual Property Dispute-A Comment on the Interpretation of the TRIPS Enforcement Provisions in The Journal of World Intellectual Property, 13: 605-619.

2.       "Patents", in The Oxford Companion to Economics in India, Ed. Kaushik Basu, Oxford University Press, 2007.

3.      "The TRIPS Agreement and Intellectual Property in Health and Agriculture" (with Roger Kampf) in Intellectual Property Management in Health and Agricultural Innovation - A Handbook of Best Practices, MIHR and PIPRA, 2007.

4.      "Developing Countries and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights:  Current Issues in the WTO" in WTO Law and Developing Countries,  Eds. George A. Bermann and Petros. C. Mavroidis, Cambridge University Press, 2007.

5.      "The WTO, IPRs and Access to Medicines" in "Healthy IPRs", edited by Prof. M.P. Pugatch and Jensen, A., Stockholm-Network, April 2007, available at http://www.stockholm-network.org/downloads/publications/Healthy_IPRs.pdf. 

6.      "Intellectual Property Rights and Agriculture" in Agriculture and the New Trade Agenda, Eds. Alan L Winters and M. Ingco, Cambridge University Press,2005.

7.      "Post-TRIPS options for access to patented medicines in developing countries" co-authored with F.M. Scherer, Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 913-939.

8.      "The Economics of TRIPS Options for Access to Medicines", with F.M: Scherer in The Economics of Essential Medicines, edited Brigitte Granville, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2002.

9.      "Intellectual Property Rights in the World Trade Organization, and Developing Countries", Oxford University Press, India and Kluwer Law International, UK, 2001.

10.   "Intellectual property and Biotechnology: Trade Interests of Developing Countries" in International Journal of Biotechnology, 2000.

11.  "Can TRIPS Serve as an Enforcement Device for Developing Countries in the WTO?" (with Arvind Subramanian), Journal of International Economic Law, Oxford University Press, September 2000.

12.  "Interests of Developing Countries in the Next ‘Development Round'", in Jeffrey. J. Schott (Ed.), "The WTO After Seattle", Institute for International Economics, July 2000.

13.  "Pharmaceutical Patents, Prices and Welfare Losses: Policy Options for India under the WTO TRIPS Agreement", The World Economy, Vol. 23, No. 5, May, 2000, pp.733-752.

14.  "Decision-making in the WTO" (with Jeffrey. J. Schott), International Economics Policy Briefs, No. 00-2, March 2000, Institute for International Economics (available at www.iie.com). Also in Jeffrey. J. Schott (Ed.), "The WTO After Seattle", Institute for International Economics, July, 2000.

15.  ‘India: The Issue of Technology Transfer in the Context of the Montreal Protocol' in Jha, Veena and Ulrich Hoffman (Eds.), Achieving Objectives of Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Package of Trade Measures and Positive Measures, UNCTAD/ITCD/TED/6, United Nations, April, 2000, pp. 63-76.

16.  "Indian Patent Law on Biotechnological Inventions" in Asia-Pacific Biotech News, Special Issue, Vol. 4, No. 4, February 2000, pp.79-83.

17.  "TRIPS and the WTO Millennium Round, 1999: Some Reflections on Future Issues on IPRs in the WTO and the Way Forward for Developing Countries" Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol. 3, No. 1, January, 2000, pp. 3-29.

18.  "Intellectual property and Biotechnology: International Trade Interests of Developing Countries" Science, Technology and Innovation Discussion Paper No. 6, Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1999.

19.  "Future Issues on IPRs in the WTO", Workshop Proceedings, Indian Council for Research in International Economic Relations, October 1999 (available at www.icrier.res.in).

20.  "Implementing the TRIPS Agreement on Patents: Optimal Legislative Strategies for Developing Countries" in Owen Lippert (Ed.) Competitive Strategies for the Protection of Intellectual Property, The Fraser Institute, Canada, 1999, pp. 105-124.

21.  "Perspectives from National Systems and Universities: India" in Uma Lele, William Lesser and Gesa Horskotte-Wesseler (Eds.) Intellectual Property Rights in Agriculture: The World Bank's Role in Assisting Borrower and Member Countries, Discussion Paper, The World Bank, Washington DC, September 1999, pp. 52-65.

22.  "Parallel Imports and IPR-based Dominant Positions: Where do India's Interests Lie?" in Thomas Cottier, Petros C. Mavroidis, Marion Panizzon (Eds.) Intellectual Property: Trade, Competition and Sustainable Development, by University of Michigan Press, 2003.

23.  John Barton, William Lesser, Jayashree Watal: Intellectual Property Rights in the Developing World: Implications for Agriculture, distributed at the Biotechnology Conference, World Bank, June 1999.

24.  "Intellectual Property Rights in Indian Agriculture", Occasional Paper No. 6, Indian Council for Research in International Economic Relations, July, 1998, also presented at the World Bank Conference on Agriculture and the New Trade Agenda, October, 1999.

25.  ‘The TRIPS Agreement and Developing Countries: Strong, Weak or Balanced Protection?', Journal of World Intellectual Property, Vol. 1, No. 2, March, 1998, pp. 281-307.

26.  ‘Policy Options Open to India in Implementing the TRIPS Agreement', Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXII, September 27 - October 3, 1997.

27.  ‘Issues relating to the Transfer of Technology, including the Role of Intellectual Property Rights, in the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol in India', Report submitted to UNCTAD, April 1997.

28.  ‘Introducing Product Patents in the Indian Pharmaceutical Sector - Implications for Prices and Welfare', World Competition: Review of Law and Economics, Vol. 20, No. 2, December 1996.

29.  ‘The Relationship between the TRIPS Agreement and the Environment', Asia Pacific Tech Monitor, Vol. 14, No. 5, Sept-Oct 1996.

30.  ‘MNEs, Market Structure and Price Competition in Pa

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